The Bolivarian Republic of Venezuela is located North of Ecuador, on the northern coast of South America. Its territory is corresponding to the former Captaincy General of Venezuela before the political transformation of 1810, as amended by virtue of the treaties validly concluded by the Republic.
The mainland and islands of the Bolivarian Republic of Venezuela has an approximate area of 916,490 km². Bordered on the north sea and submarine areas under the sovereignty or national jurisdiction of states of the Caribbean Sea on the east by the Cooperative Republic of Guyana for a limit not defined (Reclamation Area, subject to the Geneva Agreement of February 17, 1966 ) to the south by the Federative Republic of Brazil and West with the Republic of Colombia.
North Latitude: Between latitudes 0 ° 38 '53'', the source of the river Arari (Amazonas state) and 12 ° 11' 46''in Cabo San Roman of continental extension and 15 ° 49 '33''extension insular Isla de Aves.
West Longitude: Between the meridians 58 ° 10 '00''set point, located at the eastern end of the Essequibo River, Guyana Essequibo and 73 ° 25' 00'', the source of the river Intermediate (laughed Golden State of Zulia).
FROM THE NORTH:
Venezuela has the most extensive coastline on the Caribbean Sea with an area of approximately 4006 kilometers of coastline on its extensive coastline, is bordered by eleven (11) in the Caribbean countries: Dominica, United States (Puerto Rico, Virgin Islands) France (Guadeloupe, Martinique), Grenada, Kingdom of the Netherlands (Aruba, Bonaire, Curacao, Saba, St. Eustasius), United Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland (Montserrat), Dominican Republic, Saint Kitts and Nevis, St. Vincent and the Grenadines, St. Lucia, Trinidad and Tobago
FROM THE SOUTH:
The boundary between Venezuela and Brazil extends 2199 km away from border, from the point of intersection at Black River, opposite the Island of San Jose to the BV0 landmark, located on Mount Roraima.
FROM THE EAST:
The boundary between Venezuela and Guyana are subject to our claim on the territory that extends west of the Essequibo River which forms the Guyana Essequibo, based on the provisions of the Geneva Accord signed on February 17, 1966;Both countries maintain good relations and partnerships.
FROM THE WEST:
The boundary line between Venezuela and Colombia border has an approximate length of 2,260 kilometers, it extends north from Castilletes in the Guajira Peninsula to the point tripoint the confluence of the borders of Venezuela, Colombia and Brazil to the south, in Black River , opposite the island of San Jose, near the Stone of Cocuy in Venezuela.
TERRITORIAL POLITICAL DIVISION
Mountainous Coast System: It is a continuation of the island arc structure of the Eastern Caribbean region, the Coastal Zone between North-Eastern Central and depression of the plains. It covers only 3% of the total land area and the most densely populated. Is a complex mountain system with varied alpine landforms such as valleys, hills, ridges and hills, which are still in confined areas.It stretches from west to depression Larense peninsulas of Araya and Paria East, with one major interruption, depression Unare. This system is divided into two sections: Central and Eastern Unare by depression and the Cariaco Basin. Each of these is divided into two strands oriented east to west: the Coastal Chain and Chain of Interior, among which include major depression, such as the Lake of Valencia, Plain and Windward Valles del Tuy. The maximum altitude that provides the central section is the Pico Naiguatá with 2765 meters (the highest in the Cordillera de la Costa) in the Coastal Chain and the eastern section is 2595 meters with Peak Turimiquire Chain Interior. In the inland valleys of the central section of the Cordillera de la Costa, sit three cities of economic importance to the country: Caracas, Valencia and Maracay.
Cordillera de la Costa and the Caribbean Islands: This unit is located north of Venezuela, Yaracuy Depression, the Gulf of Paria, the Llanos and the Caribbean Sea, with an area of 40,000 kms. squares.
In the Venezuelan Caribbean lies a succession of islands whose topography is variable, ranging from fully rugged islands (Brothers and Monks) to island topography (Blanquilla and Isla de Aves), to another group of islands where areas are combined flat elevations. Other islands are coral atolls, of very low relief (Aves Archipelago).
The most important of the islands is the island of Margarita, which is formed by two mountain ranges, one to the East is the largest and reaches a maximum altitude on Cerro Copey de 900 mts. and another to the west known as Macanao. Both are united in the middle by a cord or restinga and present agricultural valleys.
Lake Maracaibo Basin: It extends to the northeast of Venezuela, and corresponds to the area in the angle between the Cordilleras Perija and Merida. The basin occupies a tectonic subsidence of around 52,000 kms. squares.
Within this depression are two distinct regions: a dry and semi-humid located to the north and center of the basin and over swampy south.In the eastern part of the basin is the main oil producing area of the country.
Valleys and foothills, is a region of varied relief and slightly elevated, with altitudes between 500 and 1,700 meters. Located northwest of the country and occupies almost all the states of Falcón, Lara and Yaracuy, with an approximate area of 52,000 km2. Serves as a transition between the reliefs strongest characteristic of nearby regions. They are also in this region locked lacustrine plains river semi-desert in addition to the unique micro-regional character of the country: Medanos de Coro (on the coast of Falcon).
Cordillera de Los Andes: In this mountain peaks stand Venezuelan maximum relief. Is an extension of the Colombian Andes, which at getting to the nub of Pamplona (Colombia) branch into two chains: the Sierra de Perija and the Cordillera de Merida and the Venezuelan Andes. The Cordillera de los Andes Venezuela enters the Táchira depression, from which extends to the state of Lara.At its heart is divided lengthwise by the Chama and Motatán running in opposite directions from their higher altitudes.
It is on their summits the highest peak of the country, Pico Bolívar (5,007 m). The Perija is directed toward the northwest and is the west boundary of Venezuela. The maximum altitude is the Pic Tetari presented with 3750 meters.
Los Llanos: large areas of relief are almost flat, located at the center of the country, whose heights are between 500 and 200 meters above sea level. They cover an area of approximately 25% of the total land area. It extends over a length of 1,300 kilometers, from the mouths of the Orinoco, on the east to the Andean Cordillera in the west, from the foothills of the Cordillera de la Costa to the Orinoco. In this vast region are petroleum sedimentary basins.
The plains have been divided into High and Low. This distinction is made through the 200 m curve.Which, approximately, marking the separation between the flood plains to the south, and they are free from floods in the north. Index also has a topographical connotation as in High Plains are undulations and rivers are crystal-clear fit with banks, while in the Llanos Bajos floods occur.
Guiana Shield: This physiographic unit is spread over much of Bolivar and Amazonas States in an area of 423,000 km. squares, which constitute 45% of the total area of Venezuela. The Guiana Shield is made up of one of the oldest geological formations in the world.
In the extreme southeast of the mountain physiography is characterized by the presence of towering plateaus or tepuis reaching 2275 meters above sea level.
North of the Guiana massif forming extensive plains are some bands with heights of 400 meters that support vegetation variable.
This region is characterized by substantial mineral resources including iron and is bauxite. Another important regional contribution to national development as is the potential energy provided by the Caroni river through the Guri hydroelectric plant.
Coriano System: A group formed by mountains and valleys that limit the Southeast with the Cordillera de Merida, on the west by Lake Maracaibo and northern plain and the Gulf of Venezuela and east by the Cordillera de la Costa. The relief in this area is very high, with altitudes between 500 and 1,700 m.
In the Falcon-Lara mountain system distinguishes the following mountain ranges: Sierra de San Luis, Sierra, Buena Vista and Sierra de Baragua. Portions include coastal plains of the north coast.
Paraguaná Peninsula consists of a united island to the mainland by the Isthmus the dunes. This is characterized by the presence of large deposits of sand, with some xerophytic vegetation, which are the dunes or dunes.
Deltaic Plain: An extension of 32,000 km. square which is located east of the country between the low Llanos de Monagas, the Guiana Shield and the Atlantic Ocean.
This region is in the process of consolidation of low-lying and flat terrain, so it is frequently flooded and invaded by tides near the sea, with plenty of lakes, marshes, numerous islands and countless arms and pipes.